Ethnomethodology – A Provocative Research Method Missing the Point?


***This blogpost is adopted from an earlier blog I wrote as part of an assignment during my master’s degree, I have slightly altered and adapted it.***

A big organisation. People do their work. One man doesn’t fit in. He is watching, observing, analysing. That’s Mark Rouncefield’s job. He is an ethnomethodologist.

During my master’s I had a very valuable course that thought me how to do research in academic contexts and introduced me to the different kinds of methods out there. One particular lesson I remember was that on Ethnomethodology, a very interesting and provocative qualitative research method, taught by Mark Rouncefield of Lancaster University. This lesson really challenged everything what I had read, learned and believed in the past. And it particularly challenged grand narratives and theories such as the ideas of modernity and postmodernity. For these reasons I find it quite important to revisit this subject in this methods blog, though it is a much more philosophical and less hands-on post than usual. So, if you are interested in the philosophical discussions behind doing research, this post is for you!

Sociologists argue that there are underlying social constructs that shape society which influence our work, home, the technologies we use, our understanding of our identity – capitalism being one of them (e.g. as discussed by sociologists such as Richard Sennet in his book “Corrosion of Character: The Personal Consequences of Work in the New Capitalism” – I highly recommend it). This is just one side of sociology though. There are many different streams. A very prominent one that I have strongly identified with recently is that of social constructivism which argues that everything is socially constructed including technologies, gender identities etc. (e.g. Bjiker & Law, 1992 in “Shaping Technology/Building Society”; MacKenzie & Wajcman, 1999 in “The Social Shaping of Technology”). Theories are a fundamental element of such approaches to sociology in their attempt to untangle the grand narrative that builds our society and civilization.

Mark Rouncefield on the other hand is an ethnomethodologist; another fancy word with probably a purely academic meaning and most likely not much controversy, so it may seem at first sight, but bear with me as I will explain how it relates to sociology and why I find it fascinating and relevant!

According to Wikipedia ( ethnomethodology is the study of everyday methods that people use for the production of social order. This method aims to understand how and through what practices people make sense of their world.

While this definition doesn’t seem to be too radical at first sight, when Rouncefield explained it, it became clear quickly how fundamentally different his approach is to that of sociology (even though strictly spoken ethnomethodology is considered a part of sociology). Even more drastic than merely being the opposite of conventional sociology, he aggressively rejects anything that has to do with it, especially when it comes to actively designing artefacts. He completely discards the idea of having a theory and a grand narrative as he considers these all to be “made-up speculations.

As I understood, he believes that claiming to look for underlying causes in society and meanings in our behaviour is a waste of time and only a sociologist imposing his or her theory on the world: he basically considers sociologist assuperfluous. Instead he proposes that it makes a lot more sense to actually go out and study what people do by documenting every step of their actions and how they do it. He looks at the daily processes that people engage in and tries to discover routines and exceptions to these routines. That way his ethnographic accounts of how people live can then inform design decisions.

For design, he believes, looking at the grand narrative is no more than a mere distraction and not helpful in producing something useful to make people’s lives better. In that way sociology is highly impractical, and again superfluous.

Ethnomethodology – the best way to design?

Wow! What a drastically different approach to what I had known so far and seen in academia. Fascinating. What do you think? It definitely got me thinking! I can clearly see his point, for a general theorization of why society is how it is is not directly or visibly constructive in designing artefacts. Yet, I also feel that he is missing a crucial point in completely rejecting grand narratives of society. From the point of view of a constructivist – the vantage point I have come to identify with the most – one tries to understand why our society is how it is, which includes an analysis of power structures. Our norms and behaviours are shaped by underlying values of our cultural background and this background is also reflected in the artefacts we use as our designers shape and are shaped by our society. In this way society advances and brings about innovation.

Another aspect of design I have recently come across is the widespread tendency of designers to infer that their own preferences will also be liked by other people. One example of such “egocentrism” (this is how it is officially called as I learnt from behavioural science literature), I came across recently in the use of email. We automatically assume that people understand emails as we do while writing them; yet often this is not so, leading to misunderstandings (Derks & Bakker, 2010, have a really good paper on this topic). This can also be a problem for designers of new technologies, another example being computer games that often exclude women as most game designers are still mainly young men.

My point is then, if we don’t question the underlying hierarchies and power relationships at play and only observe the existing processes, how do we identify inequalities and how do we hear the voice of the marginalized not present in such ethnographic studies?

More inclusive alternatives

An interesting approach, again something Rouncefield would reject, is that of Standpoint Theory (which I read about for the first time in Haraway (1988) and it made a lot of sense to me) which says that the voice of the unheard needs to be considered in the design process as well in order to be truly objective and hence to bring about innovation for everybody. Where is the criticality in his approach that could lead to social change and advancement? How can disruptive technologies evolve (for me disruptive meaning that they are disruptive to society in terms of change for the better), if we only manifest what we already know? How can the marginalized be heard and how can designers help them and give them a voice if they are absent from the places where ethnographic studies take place?

These questions I started to think about while listening to his ideas and they remained unanswered as he simply said it didn’t matter to him why society was how it was. Don’t you also think he should try to answer these questions?

Again, I totally see his point that for design it is important to observe the existing, as new emerges from the old, just like Schumpeter already argued in his notion of creative destruction. Yet, I argue that to detect and mitigate social inequalities, one also has to have a look at the grand narrative and the underlying causes for power hierarchies. Together, I believe these two approaches could become very powerful indeed in their attempt to create truly innovative and inclusive designs.

Bjiker, W.E. & Law, J., 1992. Shaping Technology/Building Society. Cambridge, MA: MIT Press.

Derks, D. & Bakker, A.B., 2010. The Impact of Email Communication on Organizational Life. Cyberpsychology: Journal of Psychosocial Research on Cyberspace, 4(1), [online] Available at: <>  [Accessed on 31/01/2013].

Haraway, D., 1988. Situated knowledges: The science question in feminism and the privilege of partial perspective. Feminist Studies,  14(3), pp.575–599.

MacKenzie, D. & Wajcman, J., 1999. The Social Shaping of Technology. 2nd ed. Buckingham: Open University Press.

Sennett, R., 1998. The Corrosion of Character: The Personal Consequences of Work in the New Capitalism, New York: WW Norton & Company.


Surviving Group Work: 10 Tips that will help you get through!


Everyone going through higher education will have to deal with group work at one point. Depending on your course this could happen very often or very rarely. During my time as undergraduate student, I was faced with group work in almost every single module I took and I have experienced and lived all the pleasures and pains that come with it. I have been in self-selected groups and in assigned groups and in both cases I have had really good experiences and absolute nightmares! So I feel for all of you who have to go through similar nightmares. However, I believe that there are a few things you can do to make the best out of a group assignment. The below tips won’t cure all the ills that group work suffers from in general but they can mitigate some of them.

Please note that these tips are mostly suitable for assessed group assignments. If you are not marked on your group work, some of these tips don’t apply and unfortunately all I can say about unassessed group work is hope for the best…and explain to your teacher that unassessed group work is a general group work nightmare times 10…

  1. Meet your team members asap!

After you have been assigned a group task and your group has been formed either by yourself or by your course teacher, you should schedule a first meeting as soon as possible! Get everybody together and get to know those that you don’t know yet. This will get you started early and can solve a lot of issues upfront. And even if you know all your team members already, still get them all together to sort out all the essential things upfront that will shape the success of your group assignment.

  1. Determine expectations

In your first meeting you should openly discuss what each one of you wants from this assignment. Do all of you want to do get an A or do some of you not really care about their mark and just want a pass? If they don’t care they may not say this openly but often you can sense it when talking to them. But I have also experienced people telling me directly that they don’t care and really just want to pass this assignment. It is better to be honest here so that team members know what they can expect from each other and group expectations can be established.

  1. Discuss strengths and weaknesses

This next point is very important. It is crucial that the team understands early who is good at what, so that team roles and tasks can be assigned accordingly. Often this requires quite a bit of personal reflectivity and as you go through your undergraduate education you will get better at this. Of course you need to talk about subject specific strengths e.g. writing skills, math skills etc. But also ask yourself are you somebody who is hands-on and finishes tasks, somebody who drives projects, or would you much rather be assigned a specific task? Do you like to take a lot of responsibility? But can you also trust other people and let them produce their own work without you constantly trying to control everything? Are you a bit lazy and need somebody to push you? All these and similar ones are important questions to ask yourself and your team members and you should try to answer them honestly. This will encourage your team members to do the same.

  1. Determine group roles

Once all of you have put all your cards on the table you can then go on and determine group roles. Who will be responsible for what? Do you want a group leader or do you want to take turns in facilitating your group work and your meetings in particular? In student groups it is often very difficult to determine a group leader as there is no natural hierarchy between students, so it may be useful to leave this question open at the beginning and wait and see whether a natural group leader emerges or you can just say that you will all take turns at leading the group. If you decide the latter make sure that you clarify the rota so that nobody will get upset. You should also decide on somebody who takes minutes and distributes the agenda prior to a meeting.

  1. Determine a procedure for conflict

Though I wish for everybody that there will be no conflict whatsoever in their groups and that it will all work well, quite often this is not so. The problem of free-riding has probably existed ever since humans have started to walk the earth. But there can also be problems between team members, uneven expectations and work ethics, last minute vs. early bird attitudes and all sorts of other things that emerge over the course of a group assignment. For this reason it is really important that you determine a procedure to deal with conflict early on. This could be as simple as making clear that everybody addresses potential problems as soon as possible either directly to the person concerned or to the whole group. But you could also appoint one group mediator who will try to talk to all involved parties should a problem arise. You could also determine a red line after which you will consult your teacher to help solve the issue. Do whatever you think works best for your group but try to address this in the first meeting!

  1. Decide on means of communication

Ask all team members how they can best be reached. Is it email, WhatsApp, facebook, a phone call? Exchange phone numbers, create a facebook group or do whatever you feel you need to do to ensure that all team members will be reached easily.

  1. Schedule a regular time to meet

This may sound unnecessary but from my own experience I know how difficult it can sometimes be to find a time that suits everybody. So, having managed to get together in this first meeting is already a great success. For this reason you should take the opportunity to determine regular meeting slots which everybody should put in their calendar immediately.

  1. Assign tasks

After all the organizational stuff has been done you should get an overview of the tasks that have to be completed in your group project and distribute the work among all team members. Make sure everybody knows what to do and that everybody is happy with their workload.

  1. Take minutes and set agendas!

This is very important. Agendas help you to focus on the relevant tasks in each meeting and to get the things done that need to get done and minutes help to remind everybody of what has been discussed and can also be useful if conflicts arise. Determine who does what and make sure that both agenda and minutes are distributed to all team members in a timely manner. Since taking minutes can be a pain and you may not find a volunteer in your group, it may also be a good idea to take turns.

  1. Reflect on your own behavior!

This is actually very important. Try to see the others’ point of view. Have you done less than what you had agreed to? Are you very pushy and controlling? Try to reflect on your own behavior in this group work and try to change it, should there be a need for it. It is always easy to blame others for failure or conflict. Try to see what role you are playing in such scenarios.

That’s it. That’s all the advice I can give about group assignments and it is by no means exhaustive but try it out! It can at least help mitigate some of the pains that group work often comes with. For those interested, I can also recommend looking at some managerial models of team work such as the Tuckman model of team development and the Belbin Team Role Model.

How to go about writing an essay


When getting started in academia, it is not long until you will be confronted with your first course work that requires you to write an essay. For some this may be a simple thing to do as they have never had an issue with putting thoughts into words; for others, however, this may be a very daunting task they want to ignore as long as possible. Now, the most typical thing you will hear from your lecturers and seminar teachers is most likely going to be something like this: “Plan ahead. Don’t leave it to the last minute/Avoid last minute night shifts.” Of course, I couldn’t agree more with such statements, but obviously the majority of us just can’t get themselves together and get any work done without the pressure of a nearing deadline. Now, that’s totally fine, if you know you can write quickly and effectively and are happy with submitting work that has not been thoroughly reviewed. If you belong to the group of people, however, that do struggle a bit getting words on paper, then you definitely have to plan ahead how to go about writing your essay. In the following list of tips I will assume that your essay question is given to you. If you have to come up with your own questions in the later stages of your education, e.g. when writing a dissertation, then there are all sorts of other things you will need to pay attention to and I will dedicate another blog post to finding a research question. Nonetheless, many of below tips are generic and may be of interest to anybody who has to write an essay.

Key tips to successful essay writing:

  1. Preliminary research: The first advice I usually give people of all sorts is to do some preliminary research, that is, reading about your topic without starting to write quite yet. Get familiar with your subject. The best thing to start with is probably to identify some (maybe two to three) key words fundamental to your subject area and see what Google Scholar comes up with. Often a good idea is to have a few variants of these key words at hand, in case the first search results are meager. Avoid doing a regular Google search; Wikipedia is not acceptable for academic work (although it may a good starting point to superficially familiarize yourself with complicated concepts or to find other sources referred to within the articles). Once you have found interesting sources on Google Scholar, read some abstracts and collect a few papers that seem relevant to you. If your lecturer has given you an initial reading list, browse this one.
  2. Pin down key concepts: After having searched the academic web for some preliminary information about your subject and after having read a few abstracts, make a list of key concepts that have repeatedly come up in your search. These key concepts are the ones you want to investigate a bit more. Start reading some of the papers you have identified as relevant. At the beginning, it should be sufficient to read the introduction and the literature sections. In these, scholars usually explain the theoretical constructs they are using and these are the ones that you will want to know about.
  3. Go beyond your course reading list: Yes, it is great to have these reading lists, but really, if you want a good result, do a bit of extra research. Your assessors will thank you for it and you will be rewarded with a better grade. It is not fun to read 100 essays using the exact same 5 references. It also does not demonstrate that you have put in a lot of effort. So, all I can say is “go the extra mile”, it will pay off.
  4. Keep a list of what you have read: Make sure that you take notes as you read so that nothing gets lost along the way. It is impossible to remember everything you have read, so better put some more effort into it right away, reaping the benefits later on. Such a list could be an excel sheet or a word document or anything you like and you should make sure you record some key information like authors, journal name and year. The more elaborate this reference list is, the quicker it turns into one of the most important tools of academic work: an annotated bibliography. For interested readers more on this topic will be covered in another blog post but for the purposes of this blog post, it’ll be sufficient to just note that you should systematically record what you have read.
  5. When to start writing: Here opinions differ greatly. I usually only start writing when I feel I have researched sufficiently and know enough to write the complete thing in a day or two. Others prefer to write little bits much earlier in the research process. I do believe, however, that you can write better essays the more you know about your subject. Consequently, the earlier you start the less you will know and it is human nature not wanting to part from something that has already been written by you (at least I really struggle with it, considering that I have already put effort into it). This means that often you keep poorly written passages because you are reluctant to rewrite. I have done it myself, it is a bad idea and you get angry with yourself because of it afterwards. So, in my opinion it is better to leave the writing till later (though I know many academics would disagree with me on that one). If you follow the previous tip of thoughtfully recording what all your readings have been saying, then you are in a good position to write a great essay. The point I want to make here though is that you should not feel you haven’t done anything after one or two weeks of research because you have not yet written anything!
  6. Structure your essay thoughtfully: Make sure you have a good idea of how your essay question can best be answered. Come up with a draft structure in bullet points and then move the different sections around until you think you have a good story to tell. This is really what an essay is all about. Telling a story, but backed up with evidence. Once you have such a draft structure, writing should be easy.
  7. Make sure your essay flows: Good transitions between the different sections are key to writing good essays. You can start out using subheadings and then take them out at the end. Does the essay still flow? Does it still all hang together? If not, make sure you put in some good transitions connecting your paragraphs. This is important for your assessors to follow the overall logic of your essay. Oh, and to keep your assessor happy, put the subheadings back in again after the essay flows J
  8. Good introductions motivate the topic: Make sure you hook the reader, do something that catches people’s attention such as a key statistic you have come across, or a counter-intuitive fact you found in the literature. This grabs the reader’s attention. Don’t forget to provide a statement of intent and an overview of your essay structure though.
  9. Good conclusions leave the reader with your key thesis: Make sure you summarize your key findings again at the end and highlight the most important point about your thesis/your answer to the essay question. To round if off you can then highlight some areas where more research may be useful or, depending on the topic, you can give a future outlook.
  10. Use evidence: Make sure that theoretical claims are sufficiently backed up with references. A well referenced essay sets the tone and makes academics happy. For more on referencing you can read my blog post on this subject.
  11. Don’t give your opinion unless explicitly asked to. It is as simple as that. This does not mean that you cannot be critical in your analysis of the existing literature. In fact you want to be critical, but base your conclusions on analytical insights and not opinions.
  12. Ask your lecturer or seminar teacher for advice: If you are unsure about your structure or anything else, go and see the responsible teacher. They will not be able to provide you with the answer to the essay question but can help you find out what exactly they are looking for. Step outside your comfort zone! I have asked many times and it has paid off.

Now these 12 pieces of advice are by far not an exhaustive list. However, I do believe if you follow them and internalize some of them, you are in for a good undergraduate career of writing essays.

The big deal around referencing…that isn’t all that big actually!


Now one of the biggest riddles when you enter higher education is the mystery of referencing. What is it for and why is it needed? And most importantly how does it work in practice?

Well the most important thing to say upfront is that referencing is key to producing successful academic work. So you better start learning how to do it right as soon as possible. I myself struggled with this then unknown world of Harvard, APA, ASA, etc. just to name a few options you could use, and had to find my way through this jungle of in-text and bibliography referencing options as well. The thing about referencing styles is that they can seem VERY similar but still have tiny differences. The good news is, that you don’t have to learn them all and often (especially as an undergrad) what exact style to use is left for you to decide, as long as you use your chosen style correctly and coherently. The one I started with and mainly stuck to until today is the well known Harvard style of referencing. So in order to answer the last but most important question of how to reference and for those who are only very superficially interested in finding out quickly how to do it, go to a website that shows you every step of how to reference from all sorts of different sources. A fantastic website that explains to you in detail how to use Harvard correctly is available from the Anglia Ruskin University Library website. But before you go off to look there, bear with me a little longer as such websites may not help you become clearer when to use what kind of reference.

So, the first basic thing you should know about referencing is that they are there to back up any claim you make in your written academic work, firstly to show you have done your homework and have read widely and secondly to ensure that you are not plagiarizing. Though coming from a social sciences background, I am pretty sure that this applies to all academic disciplines out there. The second bit may be slightly confusing and scary for many, especially those who are not coming from a Western country, as rules and expectations of what constitutes plagiarism greatly vary from culture to culture (for those who are interested see a great article by Introna and Hayes (2011) on plagiarism detection software and Greek students in the UK HE system). But even more important is it then for these students to quickly get a hang of how to do it properly.

There is a difference between in-text references and the bibliography. In-text references are the things you know from or about other people that you write about in your actual essay/paper/etc. The Introna & Hayes paper I refer to above is an example of such an in-text reference. Here are two things to look out for: First of all, when using Harvard or similar you always need the authors’ last names and the year of publication. If it is two authors connect them with an ‘and’ as demonstrated above, if you have three authors you can start using et al. instead of citing all authors’ last names. This would look like this: (Author 1 et al., year). So basically, you only use the first author’s last name and stick an ‘et al.’ in as a place holder for the remaining authors’ names. Some only start to do this after it is more than 3 authors, some write the ‘et al.’ in italics, others don’t. I usually don’t. Some require you to spell out each author with last name the first time you cite them in a paper and use et al. thereafter. The thing here is that there is lots of flexibility, but again only as long as you do it COHERENTLY throughout your paper.

Secondly going back to the Introna and Hayes example above there is another possible point for confusion here. There are four types of in-text references each of which require a slightly different approach.

  1. Direct reference to authors using indirect quote:

Since I refer to them directly in my above example, I only wrote the year of publication in brackets. So basically, as soon as you say author XX said you do it as follows: Author XX said (year) and then you go on to cite indirectly by paraphrasing what they have said. If it is more than two authors you can go back to using “Author XX et al. said” or sometimes people also write “Author XX and colleagues.” This is a matter of taste and you should check with papers in your discipline what is more common.

  1. Direct reference to authors using direct quotes:

This is very similar to the above except for that you are directly copying a sentence or more from their work. Both approaches are totally fine and usually you will find a mix of both direct and indirect quotes in academic papers. A little thing to remember though is that if you use a direct quote you HAVE TO provide the exact page number, meaning that Author XX said (year) will change to Author XX said (year: page) or alternatively Author XX said (year, page). Again, there is flexibility here how to do it but do it and do it coherently.

  1. Indirect reference to author using indirect quote:

Here you just paraphrase what the author(s) said and reference at the end of the sentence (but prior to the punctuation mark as the reference belongs to the sentence!) putting both author(s) and year in brackets like so (Author XX, year). Same rules for ‘et al.’ apply.

  1. Indirect reference to author using direct quote:

Here it is exactly the same as above just that you don’t paraphrase but use the direct words of the authors’ you are citing and putting them in quotation marks like so. “…” (AuthorXX, year: page). As you notice, you need the exact page number again. Again same rules apply for ‘et al.’.

Now you already know a lot about in-text referencing and this is probably the most important thing to get right early on, as this is where the plagiarism detection software will pick up whether you have copied stuff without referencing properly or whether all the relevant references are there. Make sure that sufficient evidence is there to back up your claims and check with journal articles in your field to get a feel for how many references per paragraph are common.

The bibliography (or reference list) is also very important and shouldn’t be forgotten. I have myself felt the frustration on many occasions when you think you found a good reference by reading a text and then it is not there in the bibliography. So make sure you are not causing this kind of frustration to others! Not much can be said about reference lists other than choose your style, follow it (there is an abundance of websites out there explaining you how to do it, most likely also on your university’s library website) and put references in alphabetical order!!! You wouldn’t believe how many essays I have already marked in my still extremely short research career, that have not done this. And to be honest, in my first year as an undergrad I did not, until I got feedback from my first essay where points had gotten deducted for this, I then thought, minor issue. Back then I was furious that points would get deducted for such a little thing. But really, it can be very annoying if you are looking for a reference and then the reference list is not in alphabetical order. True, if it is an electronic document, a simple search will do, if it is on paper it won’t. And even if it is digital, still do it! It is just a standard thing to do.

A final point to add about referencing is that the question how many is enough cannot be answered generically. Speak to your course teachers; they will give you an idea of what is expected.

Last but not least, there is one more thing to tell. There is digital help out there in form of citation management software like Endnote, Mendeley or Zotero. These tools can be very helpful if you have to write large documents and I will dedicate another blog post to these in the future. Why do I only mention them now? I guess because I am a bit old-fashioned and I think it is better to first learn how to do it yourself and then you can get some digital support. The reason for this is that these tools can mess up and then you end up with a flawed reference list without noticing and if worse comes worst, with all your references gone and you don’t know how to get them back

Now, I would say you are well equipped to get an essay written with correct referencing. It is really not that big of a deal anymore, once you get the hang of it.



“Welcome” by “Nathan”. Licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 2.0 Generic (CC-BY2.0). Accessed: 18th September 2014.

Having gone through 5 years of undergraduate and postgraduate education in the UK, which has led me to now pursue a PhD, there has not been one week in the later years of my higher education experience, where friends and family members have not consulted me about academic issues such as referencing correctly, coming up with a bachelor’s thesis topic and getting it in shape, or conducting online research for this same thesis and how to best go about it.

I could list many more issues here and each and every one of them has its own right of being asked. The thing about academic work is that it can be incredibly exciting (at least for some including me, otherwise I guess I wouldn’t have ended up starting a PhD), yet equally daunting. The thing about academic staff is that they can be incredibly friendly and caring, yet equally unhelpful in their feedback and comments. And finally, the thing about academic literature is that it can be incredibly insightful and deep, yet equally abstract and not to the point. What’s more, often both academics and their publications can be quite detailed in the things they tell us, yet leave out the common sense stuff that we would need to understand first in order to appreciate their deep thinking. Here I am again referring to the tools of the trade like referencing, coming up with a research question or simply reading an article effectively and retrieving and retaining the relevant information. Having said all this, it is now one of my missions to address this problem by providing first-hand information on how to actually do these kinds of things based on my own experiences, the knowledge I have amassed over the years of being a student and young researcher myself and my constant review of the methods literature out there.

Please see this blog as a helping hand and a platform where no question about academic things is too banal to be asked. It is the little things that confuse us and mess up our day. We have all seen them and struggled with them ourselves. Comments and suggestions for topics to be covered are also very welcome!